Highlights Of Bangsamoro History (Part 1)

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Highlights Of Bangsamoro History (Part 1) Empty Highlights Of Bangsamoro History (Part 1)

Post by Murp on Sun Aug 10, 2008 2:16 am

1450 AD - A Johore-born Arab adventurer, Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr, arrived in Sulu from Melaka; He married Param Isuli, daughter of Raja Baguinda, and founded The Royal Sultanate of Sulu in 1457; He declared himself H.R.H. Paduka Maulana Mahasari Sharif Sultan Hashem Abu Bakr, Sultan of Sulu, of the Saudi House of Hashemite in Hadramaut, where most Tausug and Yakan believe Prophet Mohammad's genealogy is traced.

1451 AD - By this time, the Melakan Sultanate had become a leading center of Islam in southeast Asia, and as a time-tested protege of the Ming dynasty, Yung Lo sent away his daughter Hang Li-po and a cortege of five-hundred Mandarin ladies as a gift to Melakan Sultan Mansor Shah in 1459; in turn, Shah conceived "Bukit Cina" as a permanent residential court for his esteemed visitors.

H.R.H. Sultan Syed Hashem Abu Bak'r reign (1457-1480).

1470 AD - Muslim conquest of the Madjapahit Empire.

1473-1521 AD - Golden age and rule of Nakhoda Ragam Sultan Bulkeiah’s Sultanate of Brunei that expanded her hegemony to include North Borneo, Sarawak, Indonesia Balabac, Banggi, and Palawan in Archipelago San Lazaro (present-day Philippines) and the new Royal Sultanate of Sulu

H.R.H. Sultan Kamal ud-Din reign (1480-1519) .

1509 AD - A Bengali Putih and Diego Lopez deSequeira with a squadron of five Portuguese battle ships established the first White settlement in Melaka (Ferdinand Magellan was said to be a member of this expedition).

1511 AD - Portuguese privateer Alfonso de Albuquerque captured Melaka from deSequeira and reported of Muslim trading vessels from Sulu anchored in that Malay port.

1512 AD - Unnamed Portuguese sailors effected a brief landing in Mindanaw.

1520 AD - Jesuit historian Francisco Combe reported of an unnamed Muslim Sharif who tried to spread Islam to Jolo but died at Bud Tumangtangis; His magnificent tomb was comparable to those in Makkah, but unfortunately in the years following, Manila Spaniards burned it to the ground.

1565-1663 - Fourth Stage of Moro Wars (Majul)

1638-1640 - Records had it that Sulu Sultan Wasits many heroic battles during this period at Bud Datu in Jolo island against the Manila Spaniards were never lucidly recorded; It was Wasit who named this hill to honor the bravery and unconditional loyalty of his datus.

1718-1772 - Fifth Stage of Moro Wars (Majul)

December 21,1751 - A furious Manila governor-general F. Valdez y Tamon issued a decree that ordered: (1) The extermination of all Moros with fire and sword; (2) The destruction of all their crops and desolate their lands; (3) Make Moro captives; (4) Recover Christian slaves; and (5) Exempt all Christians from payment of any taxes and tributes while engaged in the termination of these Moros.

March.1877 - The Sulu Protocol was signed between Spain, England, and Germany that recognized Spain’s rights over Sulu and, in consideration for the said lease of North Borneo, ended European hostilities in the area

July 22, 1878 - Sultan Jamal ul-Alam signed a treaty with the Spanish Crown making whole of Sulu a protectorate of Spain yet retained her autonomy and the privilege to fly own flag thus saved Jolo from further destruction. [Majul, Muslim in the Philippines/ Kho]

1883 - Manila Spanish government established a customs house in Ciudad de Zamboanga to clear goods coming into the Sultanate of Sulu but, on the insistence of the British, Jolo was declared a free port and trade continued
December 10, 1898 - Treaty of Paris was signed in Washington DC between the United States and Spain

December 21, 1898 - McKinley issued a proclamation calling for a Philippine colonial policy of benevolent assimilation
February 5,1842 - American captain Charles Wilkes landed in Jolo and signed the first-ever US-documented peace & trade treaty with Sultan Jamal ul-Kiram I

August 20, 1899

Sultan Jamalul Kiram II hesitatingly signed the treaty with Gen. J.C. Bates. (Bates Treaty or Senate Document No. 136, 56th Congress, lst Session, Serial 3851). A very critical error of translation exists in this treaty. The Tausug version states "The support, aid, and protection of the Jolo Island and Archipelago are in the American nation, "whereas the English version read: "The sovereignty of the United States over the whole Archipelago of Jolo and its dependencies is declared and acknowledged. The word "sovereignty" was not used anywhere in the Tausug version. (Peter Gowing, Mandate in Moroland. The American Government of Muslim Filipinos 1899-1920, p. 122).

Among the other terms of the treaty were:

1) Non-interference with religion, social and domestic customs or internal economic or political affairs of Moros unless requested to do so

2) The U.S. was not to give or sell Sulu or anypart of it to any other nations
3) Continuation of the $250.00 monthly allowance that was initiated by the Spaniards
4) Slaves allowed to purchase their freedom.

November 7, 1900

The U.S. pays Spain another $100,000 to incorporate the islands stretching as far as Sibutu to Cagayan de Sulu.

President William McKinley’s Instruction to the First Philippine Commission of 1900 treated the Moro Nation initially as a Dependent Nation.

March 2, 1904

The U.S. unilaterally abrogates the Bates Treaty,upon recommendations by Gov. Gen. Wood, for two main reasons: the Sultan’s failure to quell Moro resistance and the treaty's hindrance to effective colonial administration of the area. Payments to the Sultan also stopped. April 1904

The Sultan protests the unilateral abrogationof the Bates Treaty. He argues that he couldn’t stop the Moro conflict against the Americans because of U.S. had imposed poll and land taxes onthe population, a practice which the Moros were not used to. He urged theAmericans not to "put yokes on our necks that we cannot bear, and don’tmake us do what is against our religion and don’t ask us to pay poll tax forever and ever as long as there is sun and moon, and don’t ask taxes for land which are our rights of the Moro people, including all that grows (is planted) in Jolo and its islands." (Letter to Gov. Gen, Luke Wright in Peter Gowing, p. 350-351) Nov. 12, 1904

U.S. Philippine Commission restores annual payments to the Sultan and his advisers. March 7, 1906

900 Moros killed in Bud Dajo, Sulu


Constabulary elements took control of Muslim communities. Christian paramilitary groups staged an attack at a Mosque killing 65 men, women and children, which gained international attention.

Before the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) was organized, Datu Udtog Matalam, led the first salvo by leading the Mindanao Independent Movement (MIM) declaring the whole of Lanao, Cotabato “Empire”, Davao Sur, all of Zamboanga Peninsula , Sulu (including Tawi-tawi), Basilan and Palawan as independent. These were the same areas identified in the 1976 Tripoli Agreement.

March 1968

Government forces massacred 28 Moro army recruits with one survivor on Corregidor Island in what was dubbed the Jabidah massacre, triggering publicity and widespread indignation across the country.

September 21, 1972

Marcos declared martial law. One month later, the first organized Moro counter-offensive took place in Marawi. The MNLF declared secessionist war against the government.

November 14, 1972

The MNLF, headed by University of the Philippinese Professor Nur Misuari, Salamat Hashim and others, was formally announced. Fighting escalated between Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) and MNLF forces.

January 1975

MNLF Chairman Prof. Nur Misuari and government representatives held its first meeting in Jeddah , Saudi Arabia . Autonomy was the first exploratory option, after the 6th Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers (ICFM) supported it as basis for negotiations. The definition of autonomy was culled from the Working Paper of the Committee of Four ( Senegal , Libya , Saudi Arabia and Somalia ) which provides for self-government within the framework of Philippine national sovereignty and territorial integrity.

December 23, 1976

MNLF Chairman Prof. Nur Misuari and GRP Defense Undersecretary Carmelo Barbero signed the Tripoli Agreement. The Agreement provides for autonomy in 13 provinces and nine cities in Southern Philippines.

March 25, 1977

Pres. Marcos issued Proclamation 1628 declaring autonomy in 13 provinces. On 17 April, a plebiscite was called despite MNLF objections. Only 10 to 13 provinces voted for autonomy. Talks broke down.

May-December 1977

A group led by Salamat Hashim broke away from the Misuari-led MNLF leadership. Hashim went to Cairo , Egypt declaring a New MNLF.


Negotiations between the MNLF and GRP resumed. However, Marcos chose to negotiate with Hashim instead of Misuari. The 9th ICFM declared Misuari as chairman and spokesman for the MNLF.


Misuari reverted to his original position for secession, which was supported only by Iran . Surrendered MNLF founding member Abul Khayr Alonto joinsed government panel.


Malaysia and Indonesia offered to serve as peace brokers. The 11th ICFM in Pakistan requested GRP to implement the 1976 Tripoli Agreement.


Misuari failed to convince Arab states summit in Saudi Arabia to support secession. Marcos meanwhile, visited Saudi Arabia and OIC Habib Chatti. The 13th ICFM called on GRP to immediately expedite the implementation of the 1976 Tripoli Agreement. CPP-NPA formed the Moro Revolutionary Organization.


The 15th ICFM reaffirmed its commitment to recognize the territorial integrity of the Philippines and called for MNLF to close ranks. Hashim meanwhile officially declared the establishment of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front.

February 26, 1986

Marcos ousted by a people-led revolt. Newly-installed President Aquino tasked the Constitutional Commission to include provisions for autonomy in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras.

March-September, 1986

MILF sent feelers to GRP Pres. Aquino for peace talks. Through the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) and Muslim World League mediation, both MILF and MNLF agreed in principle to negotiate jointly in an expanded panel. In September, Aquino visited an MNLF camp which Misuari seizes to gain an initiative and recognition for the MNLF from the government as its negotiating panel.

August 1, 1989

Philippine Congress passed Republic Act 6734, which creates the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) and signed by Aquino into law on 1 August 1989. On November 10, a plebiscite was called, boycotted by MILF and MNLF. Only four provinces— Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi— chose autonomy.

July-October 1992

The 20th ICFM in Istanbul called for the resumption of the peace talks between the MNLF and GRP. In July 1992, Pres. Fidel V. Ramos appointed a National Unification Commission (NUC) to formulate an amnesty program for MNLF rebels. On October 1992, the first round of peace talks were held.


Indonesian Foreign Minister Ali Alatas hosted the second round of GRP-MNLF exploratory talks which led to the signing of Executive Order 125 defining the approach and administrative structure for government peace efforts.


Ramos issued Proclamation 347 granting amnesty to Moro rebels and creating a government-MNLF Joint Ceasefire Committee. In September, the second round of formal talks began. An Interim Agreement was signed, containing 81 points of consensus in defense, education, economic and financial systems, mines and minerals, Shariah courts, functions of a Legislative Assembly and Executive Council and representation in the national government and administrative system.


A meeting of the GRP-MNLF Mixed Committee resulted in the establishment of the Southern Philippines Zone of Peace and Development (SZOPAD).


September to December The Final Peace Agreement is signed on 2 September. The MILF distances itself from the Agreement, but commits not to stand in the way of peace. In the ARMM elections, Misuari runs for governor and wins, and six MNLF leaders are elected to the Regional Legislative Assembly. Ramos issues Executive Order 371, which departs from the Agreement on some significant points. The government forms a new negotiating panel for talks with the MILF in October. The MILF, in a display of strength, holds a huge assembly near Cotabato City from 3-5 December, and reaffirms commitment to independence.

Misuari wins the election as first ARMM Governor. Ramos issued Executive Order 371, a slight departure from the FPA on some significant points. GRP started negotiations with MILF.


MILF and the GRP issued a joint statement for peace. However, heavy fighting between MILF and AFP forces in Buldon which killed hundreds, marred the negotiations. In March, an Interim Ceasefire Monitoring Committee was formed but in June, AFP launches biggest offensive against MILF.


Congress filed three bills amending the Organic Act on the ARMM, expanding it in accordance with the FPA. MILF-GRP formal peace talks began at the Dawah Center , Sultan Kudarat, Maguindanao. On December 17, GRP-MILF panels agreed on the rules and procedures for the conduct of formal peace talks.


All out war policy by Erap Administration invites international attention to massive evacuations.

July 9, 2000

Government forces overran MILF camps. On July 12, MILF Chairman Salamat Hashim declared jihad against the Philippine government. On August 21, MILF disbanded its peace panels after GRP issues warrants of arrest against its leaders. On September 22-24, the MILF 16th General Assembly reaffirmed Salamat Hashim’s declaration of jihad against GRP.

February 7, 2001

Philippine Congress approved House Bill 7883 and Senate Bill 2129 as Republic Act 9054, supplanting RA 6734 or the ARMM Organic Act. On February 20, President Gloria Arroyo declared the suspension of offensive military action (SOMO).

March 13, 2001

President Arroyo named Misuari as Special Envoy to the OIC. On March 24, GRP and MILF signed a General Framework of Agreement of Intent in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia .
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